Spike protein may be a 'superantigen' that causes the immune system to go haywire

SARS-CoV-2 may be acting as a superantigen that leads to the depletion of naive T and B-cells in individuals with Long COVID. Superantigens are implicated in the development of autoimmune diseases and could explain why autoimmunity is so prevalent in long haulers.

The authors suggest that vaccination is a solution to superantigens as vaccination would reduce the dose of superantigen that a patient receives. They use MIS-C as an example and make no mention of MIS-V, which is MIS (multisystem inflammatory syndrome) caused by vaccination.

The scientific literature on ‘superantigens’ is fairly extensive.

It has been posited SARS-CoV-2 contains at least one unique superantigen-like motif not found in any other SARS or endemic coronaviruses. Superantigens are potent antigens that can send the immune system into overdrive. SARS-CoV-2 causes many of the biological and clinical consequences of a superantigen, and, in the context of reinfection and waning immunity, it is important to better understand the impact of a widely circulating, airborne pathogen that may be a superantigen, superantigen-like or trigger a superantigenic host response. Urgent research is needed to better understand the long-term risks being taken by governments whose policies enable widespread transmission of a potential superantigenic pathogen, and to more clearly define the vaccination and public health policies needed to protect against the consequences of repeat exposure to the pathogen.

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A paper by Rae Yeung argues that superantigens are behind Kawasaki disease. Kawasaki disease is very similar to the multi-system inflammatory syndrome (MIS) that develops after COVID or COVID vaccination.

While T cells are normally activated by only very specific antigens, there are some “superantigens” that have the ability to activate many different types of T cells. This causes a huge immune response that may be kept going by the presence of peptide antigens that stop the T cells from ‘self-destructing after their mission is complete’. That in turn leads to the immune system repeatedly attacking the body, causing disease.

Kawasaki disease is also linked to infectious disease:

The epidemiology of the disease suggests infections: endemic disease with epidemics every 2–3 years, seasonal predominance in late winter and early spring, geographic clustering of outbreaks, and cases within clusters sharing similar clinical features.

https://sci-hub.se/https://doi.org/10.1016/j.ppedcard.2004.08.004